Welding current and voltage calculation

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Welding current and voltage calculation

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Paul GSep 3, Hi All, Is there a way of calculating the welding amps, if you know the wire speed and the volts? I have used in the past 3 phase welders when I had a proper job and they had volt and amp gages on them. I also use on occasion a new Esab 3 ph Mig and that has a digital read out of the amps.

At home though I only have single phase and I have in the workshop a Lincoln Mig, and I often wonder what amps I am welding on for a given setting. Wire speed control knob is 1 to A common setting I use is V6 with the wire set to 5.

So how many amps is Wire is 0. Pub supply Is there a way to work it out? Cheers in anticipation, Paul G. WozzaaahSep 3, Messages: 14, Wiltshire, UK. You won't go far wrong with the miller welding calculators, here 's the mig one. Messages: 8, Location: Bedford UK. Why do you need to know the amps? For calculating them the amps are proportional to wire diameter and wire speed. It's not useful to know as there is another knob on the front of the welder controlling voltage.Powered by mwForum 2.

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Volts, Amps, and Watts Explained

By sidekickasia Date Dear pple, I am relatively new in the welding industry. May I know what are the effects of different settings of voltage and current? Is there any relationship between the voltage and current? Which should I make adjustments to - voltage or ampere?

Any good websites that imparts knowledge of setting voltage and current? By billvanderhoof Date In words voltage is equal to current multiplied by resistance.

Welding machines are classified as constant voltage or constant current. Constant current machines, stick and tig mostly, try to keep the current more or less constant. The voltage will vary mostly based on how short an arc you hold. A short arc reducing the resistance of the arc and hence the voltage. The controls of a constant current machine will effect current amps. Constant voltage machines, mig and flux core mostly, try to keep the voltage constant.

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In "short arc" transfer the wire is allowed to touch the puddle, since the machine tries to keep constant voltage the current since the resistance of the short is very small will be very large. This heats the wire until it melts like a fuse an arc forms across the gap which melts the work side stub into the puddle and the wire side into a ball. The gap burns wider until the arc can no longer maintain itself. Then after some period the wire which is being fed at a constant rate will touch again and the process repeats.

Since each repetition uses a more or less constant amount of energy the effect of an increase in wire speed is an increase in amperage. There is a limit to the amount of wire speed that a particular voltage can support.

Equations and Calculations related to Resistance Welding

On this machine the controls adjust voltage and wire speed. By max Date Voltage controls the height and width of the weld deposit.Powered by mwForum 2. Not logged in American Welding Society Forum. By OGN Date Hi, I have been production welding with a mig welder for a few years but I don't have any technical knowledge as to what I am actually doing. Everything I read online refers to the settings in amps, not volts.

I run a Miller and the digital read out is in volts. It hasn't been a problem when welding mild steel, I use to the recommended setting on the welders cheat sheet and it works good. Now with the thin stainless steel sheet metal and using a flux core wire I am having a hard time getting good welds that don't burn through.

Any advice or info would be greatly appreciated! By Blaster Date Edited If you think of your wire speed as controlling the overall heat available and the voltage as controlling your arc length and puddle diameter you should be able to dial in. There is more to it than that, but that is a simple way to think of it for dialing in. Also, thin stainless is normally done with a tri-mix gas. According to the wire manufacturer we can run 75 argon 25 co2. May have to try the tri-mix despite the cost.

Thanks for the advice! By Lawrence Date Edited Let me try to help you where the rubber meets the road.

Resistance Welding: Spot, Seam and Projection Welding

Knowing the amperage for a given wire feed speed is important, good discussion has been given to electrode extension stickout and how it effects the arc energy and weld profile. Lincoln does Typically as the weld is being placed the readout for WFS will convert to live amps, so that a bystander can see what is actually happening.

Do not change unless the manufacturers specifications allow for more than one gas or combinations This can have a bearing as stainless fillers do not behave the same as carbon steel FCAW fillers. But it is an example how you can put the information provided here together to come up with WFS and Voltage rates that will serve you. If you are running a push this could cause worm tracks and problems The only time you want to push is vertical-up or when purposefully trying to reduce penetration, and it still may cause problems.

There is a reason The machine is not heavy duty! You did not mention filler dia. By welderbrent Date Don't remember if mine is the or but I use Millers.Introduction Gas metal arc welding GMAW is a welding process that has been commercially available for around 60 years.

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The basic operation of the GMAW process occurs when an electrical arc is established and maintained between a base material and a continuously feed wire electrode. The molten weld pool is shielding from the atmospheric conditions by an envelope of shielding gas that is flowed continuously around both the wire filler metal feeding in the weld pool and the weld pool itself.

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The heat of the electrical arc serves to locally melt the base metal as well as melt the wire filler metal that is being fed into the weld. There are two entities at play in the GMAW process:. The primary variables that control the thermal energy of the arc are the welding current, welding voltage, and shielding gas composition.

Calculating Amperage

For a stable welding arc, the burn rate and feed rate need to equal each other. For instance, if the burn rate is higher than the feed rate, the wire filler metal would melt back to the contact tip and cause issues. With the exception of short circuit metal transfer, if the feed rate is higher than the burn rate, the wire filler metal would feed into the molten weld pool, again, causing issues. There are four main variables of the GMAW process that affect both the penetration profile into the base material and weld bead profile above the base material for a given weld:.

Welding Current 2. Welding Voltage 3. Contact To Work Distance 4. Travel Speed. The information below observes thevery basic effects that the welding current and welding voltage variables have on the weld penetration profile in the base material and the weld bead profile that lies above the base material. The internal circuitry of the power source then supplies an appropriate amount of welding current necessary to maintain a stable arc.

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The GMAW process variables of current and wire feed speeds are interrelated so one cannot be independently adjusted without affecting the other byjust altering the WFS selector setting on the power supply itself. Welding Current The variable of welding current primarily controls the amount of weld metal that is deposited during welding. As discussed earlier, the process variables of WFS and current are directly related so as one increase so does the other and vice versa.

Holding all other variable constant, the WFS was incrementally increased from Weld 1 through Weld 5 which consequently increased the welding current. Table 1 show the welding data from these welds.These are some of the basic calculations you should become familiar with if you are shopping for equipment or learning about the resistance welding process.

The first resistance welders were tied to the utility frequency of the power supply to the machine. For this reason, you will still see Weld Cycles quite commonly in resistance welding documentation. In North America, line frequency is 60Hz. In many other parts of the world, utility frequency is 50Hz. World map showing frequency for public mains power, by country. Not all colored areas have mains power available.

Japan uses both 50Hz and 60Hz. Single-phase AC machines still count the number of cycles of the utility frequency to control the time of a weld. Duty Cycle is used to mathematically derate a welding transformer.

welding current and voltage calculation

They are often turned on for only brief periods of time. Care must be taken when shopping for a welder, as Duty Cycle calculations can be manipulated to make machinery sound more powerful than other equipment.

The Power into a transformer should be roughly the same going in as going out. Search for:. Request a quote. Equations and Calculations related to Resistance Welding. Request a Quote. Welding Related Math These are some of the basic calculations you should become familiar with if you are shopping for equipment or learning about the resistance welding process. Time calculations Weld Cycles The first resistance welders were tied to the utility frequency of the power supply to the machine.Resistance welding processes differ from other welding processes in that no fluxes are employed, the filler metal is rarely used, and the joints are often of the lap type.

The amount of heat generated in the workpiece depends on the magnitude of the current, the resistance of the current conducting path, and the time for which the current is made to flow.

This is expressed in terms of joule heating. As the interface of the two surfaces forming the lap joint is the point of greatest resistance, it is also the point of greatest heat. In this process overlapping sheets are joined by local fusion, at the interface, by the concentration of current flowing between two electrodes. It is characterized by low cost, high speed, and dependability making it, at present the most widely used resistance welding process.

Once a welding operation has been initiated there is no way in which its progress can be controlled and, thus, the weld cycle is completed as per the pre-set times. These timings are pre-set for a particular metal and a thickness range and the shop operator normally cannot change them on his own.

Each one of these four time phases has its own role to play in achieving a sound weld of the required size. The time interval between the application of electrode pressure to the work and switching on the welding current is called the squeeze time. This time interval is provided to assure the contact between the electrode and the work and to initiate the application of force on it. It is the time for which the electrodes are kept in position, after the welding current is switched off, to assure the application of pressure so as to consolidate the molten metal into a nugget which is then cooled by the dissipation of heat to the surrounding work material.

If the applied force is excessive it may result in expulsion of molten metal from in-between the sheets. The time allowed to shift the work to the next location before the cycle is repeated is referred to as the off time. The electrodes are kept off the work during this time interval.

The actual welding is done in the secondary circuit of the resistance welding machine but the voltage is not known and the current flowing, for a fraction of a second for each weld cycle, is very heavy. It is, therefore, not easy or economical to measure these electrical parameters in the secondary circuit.

The machine rating is, thus, based upon the current drawn by the system at the mains supply and is given in KVA unit.

welding current and voltage calculation

Some part of this power is lost in the system which goes to heat up the windings and stampings. This leads to rise in temperature of the transformer which necessitates water cooling of the system otherwise the insulation may get damaged. To give a higher margin of safety the KVA ratings of these machines are quoted based upon the power that can be drawn for thirty seconds in each minute, this accounts for cooling requirements of the system.

The KVA rating of the resistance welding machines for spot, seam and projection welding, normally varies between 5 to KVA. Electrodes are an important part of a resistance spot welding unit. They serve four important functions viz.

To achieve the desired current density it is important to have proper electrode shape for which three main types of electrodes are used; these are pointed, domed, and flat electrodes. Pointed tips are most widely used particularly for ferrous materials; with continued wear they mushroom uniformly. Compared with other types, contact area can be controlled more accurately with truncated cone or pointed electrodes and any wear in service can be easily seen. However, the pointed tip electrodes make more obvious surface marking on the workpiece and require more accurate alignment.There are only a few welding parameters that directly affect the physics of the welding arc.

The welding current is one of those parameters. For this reason it is an essential variable in one form or another in most welding codes. The welding current is also an important contributor to the welding heat input. If you want to know more about the welding heat input essential variable, then please click here In this essay we will look at how the welding current is set in different welding processes, and what its effect is in different circumstances.

You can take a look at "The WelderDestiny Compass" back-issues by clicking here. The current is measured in amps, and is one of the easier parameters to measure.

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This is so, because the amperage, is the same through the entire welding circuit. This means that it can be measure anywhere along the welding cables, and it will give the same measurement. Most modern welding power sources have built-in amp meters, that are usually quite accurate. Inspection personnel typically use external "clamp meters" for measuring the current. These are simply clamped over one of the welding cables, anywhere along the circuit.

welding current and voltage calculation

Generally speaking, there are two different types of welding power sources. These are "constant current" and "constant voltage" power sources. Just to confuse things, some people use the terms variable voltage instead of constant current, and variable current instead of constant voltage.

Just be aware of this anomaly. In this article we will just use the terms constant current and constant voltage. They are the most common terms. Figure 1 below shows us what the power characteristic curve looks like for a constant current power source. The voltage is determined by the arc length with which the Welder is welding. If we then draw a horizontal line from the voltage point on the vertical axis, we will hit the curve at a particular point.

This point then shows us what the amperage will be that the power source delivers. In figure 1 above, this is the "operating point" at which the Welder is welding.

Now, we know that it is not possible for the Welder to keep exactly the same arc length the whole time. Due to simple human variability, how steady can your hand be after all the arc gap will continuously vary. This variation is shown by the broken horizontal lines running each side of the solid voltage line.


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